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Probably no other ancient civilization ever caused so much intrigue and interest in the modern world as did the Ancient Egyptian Civilization! During the Middle Ages and Renaissance Era, European scholars knew about Egypt only from the descriptions in Bible and some vague details from the Classical Greek works, such as Herodotus' History. Some travelers and monks from the West DID visit Egypt during the 17/18th centuries and give their details of a mysterious land full of gigantic ruins. Many describe the Coptic Monasteries, the Great Pyramid (they thought it to be an ancient Christian Fortress, or Joseph's Granaries!), the Colossi of Memnon (misnomer by the later Greeks!), the half-buried Sphinx, and so on. Their stories were published back in Europe. They were, however, filled with travel details and manipulative history of the ruins they describe.


The Beginning

Napoléoen Bonaparte on his way to glory through the St. Bernard Pass

The real archaeological study of Ancient Egypt began with the growing influence of Napoléon Bonaparte in France in 1795. The ambitious General started launching wars not only against his European Imperial neighbors, but he stretched his hands over the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean as well. Devastating the Mameluke army of the Egyptian Generals Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey in the Battle of the Pyramids at Giza plateau, Napoléon took over the control of Lower Egypt. But he was soon cut off from France by Nelson's British army after his defeat in the Battle of Nile.

Napoléon Bonaparte



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